Each year, about 1.6 million Americans experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A TBI occurs when someone experiences brain damage after a head trauma, such as from a fall or a car accident. Memory problems are common, affecting more than half of people with TBI. People with TBI may have trouble learning and remembering new information, which can cause challenges in school, work, and other settings. Memory training exercises can help people with TBI improve memory. However, it would be helpful to know whether these interventions help some people with TBI more than others.
Each year, about 486,000 Americans receive treatment for serious burn-related injuries. A burn injury may result from exposure to a fire or skin contact with hot liquids, electricity, or chemicals. People with burn injuries may undergo surgery to repair the skin or address scarring in the burned area, and then spend some time recovering at a rehabilitation hospital. During this time, they may continue to receive follow-up care from their burn surgeon.
People with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) often have trouble communicating due to disabilities that affect their muscle control, such as cerebral palsy (CP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or stroke. These individuals can benefit greatly from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices and programs that can translate typed text to speech, like the computer system used by astrophysicist Stephen Hawking who has ALS.
For people with disabilities, transportation can be a major challenge. People may be unable to drive a car, ride a bike, or travel on foot due to a disability. If transportation is not available, accessible, and affordable, people with disabilities may not be able to fully participate in daily activities. For example, people may have trouble getting to work, running errands, going to the doctor, or socializing without adequate transportation.
About 800,000 Americans have a stroke each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing brain damage. Sometimes, stroke can lead to long-lasting difficulties with moving one hand or arm due to both muscle weakness and spasms. Therapies are available to help people regain hand mobility after a stroke, but these therapies may not work for people with severely limited hand movement.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic condition affecting the central nervous system. MS is related to a variety of symptoms that are often variable and unpredictable. Symptoms of MS can either come and go (relapsing-remitting MS) or get worse over time (progressive MS). Common MS symptoms include trouble walking, fatigue, weakness, pain, and problems with thinking and memory. These symptoms can increase the risk of mental health problems. They can also make it difficult to participate in life activities, such as working, socializing, and managing household tasks.
People with mobility disabilities have difficulty standing, walking, or climbing stairs. Mobility aids, such as wheelchairs and scooters, allow people with mobility disabilities to get around and be more active in their communities. However, some people may be living in homes that do not meet their needs. Home features like stairs and narrow doorways make homes less accessible for mobility aid users. Living in an inaccessible home can make it harder for people with mobility disabilities to live, work, and participate in their communities.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage anywhere along the spinal cord, often due to an accident or other trauma. SCI typically causes a loss of movement and feeling below the damaged part of the spinal cord, often leading to paralysis and other changes in functioning. People with SCI may be more likely to develop depressed mood than members of the general population: Current research shows that up to 25 percent of people with SCI experience depression, and up to 12 percent report major clinical depression.
Youth with disabilities have access to a variety of services throughout their school years and as they transition to adulthood. These services include special education, transition supports, vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, and social and health services. After high school, however, these services can become fragmented and harder to access. Compared to youth without disabilities, research has shown that youth with disabilities may be less likely to continue with their education or pursue employment after high school.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 5.3 million Americans are living with the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI refers to damage to the brain caused by an external force, such as a fall or a car accident. TBI can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the degree or extent of brain tissue damage and severity of symptoms such as loss of consciousness and amnesia.
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