People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have conditions like cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, or other genetic syndromes. People with IDD may have challenges with learning, communicating or decision-making, and sometimes, challenges with mobility. Previous studies have shown that adults with IDD are less likely to be physically active than adults without IDD.
About half a million Americans are treated for burn injuries each year, and many of these burn injuries occur in the workplace. A burn injury may result from a fire or contact with hot liquids, electricity, or chemicals. People may experience physical limitations after a burn injury that may make it difficult to return to work. Studies have shown that up to one in four burn survivors become unemployed and do not return to work after their injury.
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is lasting brain damage after a head trauma, such as from an accident. A TBI can cause symptoms that last for many years after the injury. Research has shown that fatigue is one of the most common long-term problems people may experience after a TBI. Fatigue may cause a person to feel too tired to keep up with work, family, or leisure activities. In past studies, regular exercise such as walking has been linked to lower levels of fatigue in people with many different types of disabilities, but this has not been well studied in people with TBI.
Serious mental illnesses (SMI) are conditions like schizophrenia, depression, or bipolar disorder. In past studies, people with SMI have reported more physical health problems than people without SMI. In particular, they may have a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese, as well as a higher risk of diabetes. According to some researchers, these problems may be caused by side effects of medications taken to treat SMI, but they could also be due to high-fat/low-fiber diets or a lack of exercise.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage anywhere along the spinal cord, usually from an accident or other trauma. An SCI can cause paralysis below the waist (paraplegia) or above the waist (tetraplegia). More than 80% of people with SCI experience chronic pain. This pain may be caused by nerves “misfiring” through the damaged part of the spinal cord and sending pain signals to the brain. Previous studies have shown that being physically mobile may help reduce chronic pain after an injury.
People with disabilities may encounter barriers to obtaining competitive employment, meaning full- or part-time work in an integrated setting that pays at least a minimum wage. These barriers may include inaccessible work sites, a lack of transportation, and health challenges that make it difficult to keep a traditional work schedule. Self-employment is an alternative that can reduce these challenges by giving people with disabilities more control over their work setting and schedule.
According to the Amputee Coalition of America, more than 735,000 Americans have had an upper limb amputation, and up to half of these individuals use a prosthetic hand. A myoelectric prosthesis is a type of prosthetic hand controlled by muscles in the upper arm. The prosthesis is connected to electronic sensors used to detect minute muscle movements and electrical activity from the muscles and nerves. Those movements and electrical activity provide information to the motors that would then use that information to move the wrist, hand, and fingers of the prosthesis.
Serious mental illnesses (SMI) are conditions like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. People with serious mental illness often receive traditional mental health services funded by Medicaid, such as medications or psychotherapy. These services may help reduce SMI symptoms, but they may not be effective enough to help people with SMI participate fully in their communities. Self-directed care (SDC) is a new and alternative approach to traditional care for people with SMI.
People with disabilities may have more complex healthcare needs than people without disabilities. Receiving regular healthcare can help people with disabilities avoid preventable health problems, but they may have difficulty getting necessary medical or dental care. Their health insurance may not cover all of their needs, or they may encounter other barriers such as a lack of transportation to get to the doctor’s office. As a result, they might put off or skip getting necessary care putting them at risk for expensive health emergencies.
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in lasting brain damage from an accident or other head trauma. A TBI may be mild, moderate, or severe. TBI survivors may develop physical or cognitive disabilities and sometimes need help with daily living tasks like shopping, transportation, and keeping track of appointments. Often, the TBI survivor’s spouse or a close family member or friend takes on much of this caregiving responsibility. Becoming a caregiver for a TBI survivor can be challenging, especially in the first months after the TBI.
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